Why You Should Not Get A Tattoo?

Why You Should Not Get A Tattoo
Know the risks – Tattoos breach the skin, which means that skin infections and other complications are possible, including:

  • Allergic reactions. Tattoo dyes — especially red, green, yellow and blue dyes — can cause allergic skin reactions, such as an itchy rash at the tattoo site. This can occur even years after you get the tattoo.
  • Skin infections. A skin infection is possible after tattooing.
  • Other skin problems. Sometimes an area of inflammation called a granuloma can form around tattoo ink. Tattooing also can lead to keloids — raised areas caused by an overgrowth of scar tissue.
  • Bloodborne diseases. If the equipment used to create your tattoo is contaminated with infected blood, you can contract various bloodborne diseases — including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
  • MRI complications. Rarely, tattoos or permanent makeup might cause swelling or burning in the affected areas during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams. In some cases, tattoo pigments can interfere with the quality of the image.

Medication or other treatment might be needed if you experience an allergic reaction to the tattoo ink or you develop an infection or other skin problem near a tattoo.

Do tattoos shorten your life?

the MPR take: – Having a tattoo may mean an earlier death, says a new report in the American Journal of Clinical Pathology. Investigators compared the deaths of people with and without tattoos and found that people with tattoos appeared to die earlier than people without (mean age of death: tattooed: 39yrs; nontattooed: 53yrs).

What people should not get a tattoo?

Do tattoos make you unhealthy?

Tattoos can potentially lead to a number of risks, including skin infections, allergic reactions, and scarring. Such risks may increase if you don’t see a licensed tattoo artist or if the wound itself heals improperly. Aside from these risks, do you have to worry about the potential of cancer from getting new ink? Read on to learn what the science says, and how you can best guard yourself against common side effects associated with tattooing.

What are the bad things about tattoos?

Allergic reactions – Some people might develop an allergic reaction after getting a tattoo. This is usually related to the ink — especially if it contains plastic — and not the needling process itself. According to the Mayo Clinic , red, yellow, blue, and green pigments tend to be the most allergenic.

Do tattoos poison your blood?

– Ink poisoning doesn’t occur from drawing on your skin. Ink may temporarily stain your skin, but it will not poison you.

Do tattoos affect your blood?

– If you have a tattoo, you can only donate blood if you meet certain criteria. A good rule of thumb is that you may not be able to give blood if your tattoo is less than 3 months old. This goes for piercings and all other nonmedical injections on your body, too.

Introducing ink, metal, or any other foreign material into your body affects your immune system and may expose you to harmful viruses. This can affect what’s in your bloodstream, especially if you got your tattoo somewhere that isn’t regulated or doesn’t follow safe practices.

If there’s a chance that your blood has been compromised, the donation center won’t be able to use it. Keep reading to learn about the eligibility criteria, where to find a donation center, and more.

What does having tattoos say about a person?

Author:  Sophia Carter – Institution:  Whitworth University ABSTRACT Research supports personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals. However, few studies have investigated whether any of these differences are associated with positive indicators for tattooed individuals.

In this study, personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals in three of the Big Five personality areas considered critical to successful employees in the workforce were examined.

Previous research has established that higher levels of conscientiousness and extraversion coupled with lower levels of neuroticism are indicators of high-quality employees. The present study attempts to augment this line of research by adding the dimension of tattoos; investigating whether individuals with tattoos report more positive personality indicators in these dimensions than individuals without tattoos.

Thus it was hypothesized that tattooed individuals would report higher levels of conscientiousness and extraversion and lower levels of neuroticism than non-tattooed individuals. For this purpose,  N  = 521 individuals completed an online survey, which included the 44-Question Big Five Inventory.

An independent sample t -test revealed a statistically significant difference between tattooed ( M  = 3. 41,  SD  = 0. 77) and non-tattooed ( M  = 3. 21,  SD  = 0. 83) groups in the Big Five personality area of extraversion,  t  (521) = 0. 39,  p  =. 004,  d  = 0.

25. There were no other statistically significant differences. These findings indicate that tattooed individuals may be better employees than previously believed, as the extraversion component of the Big Five Inventory, has been found to be a critical indicator of successful job performance.

INTRODUCTION Tattoos have increased in popularity over the last two decades; almost one in five people across all age groups had a tattoo as of 2012, and one in ten people have two or more tattoos (Swami et al. , 2012). Nearly 40% of young adults (18-25) have at least one tattoo, whereas only 15-16% of members of this age group in 1990 were tattooed (Swami et al.

, 2012). Despite the increase in tattoos within younger generations, tattooed individuals face discrimination, negative stigma, and lower levels of employment than their non-tattooed counterparts (Horne, Knox, Zusman, & Zusman, 2007).

Very little research has examined whether individuals with tattoos score differently than non-tattooed individuals on scales measuring personality traits perceived as positive. This study seeks to address this gap by identifying personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals and the potential implications of those differences for employment.

Historically, the traits associated with tattooed individuals have depended significantly on the culture and circumstances of those individuals. Captain Cook explored Polynesia in 1769 and observed the social and spiritual significance of tattoos in Polynesian culture.

The location of a tattoo on an individual’s body and the specific tattoo design displayed social, hierarchal, and genealogical information about the owner of the tattoo, as well as signaling particular aspects of his or her character (Parry, 1933). Tattooing was considered a sacred ceremony, and most tattoos were thought to fetch spiritual power, protection, and strength.

Almost every Polynesian individual had tattoos, and many of Captain Cook’s men left their voyage with a permanent memento of their expedition, which was considered a great honor (Parry, 1933). Similarly, Native Americans report a long and extensive history of traditional tattoos.

Depending on the tribe, tattoos could signal hierarchy or a specific role within the tribe, mark a warrior’s prowess in battle, or be considered marks of beauty (Littell, 2003). Since then, through the shift towards Western culture and through changing definitions of art, tattoos have become more associated with criminals and the sexually promiscuous (Wohlrab, Fink, & Kappeler, 2005).

Recent studies have shown there are still many stereotypes attached to individuals with tattoos: academic struggle, broken homes, traumatic childhoods, rarely or never attending church, poor decision-making skills, and susceptibility to peer pressure (Roberts & Ryan, 2002).

However, these stereotypes may not accurately represent the current tattoo climate. Forty percent of 26 to 40-year-olds now have a tattoo, closely followed by 36% of 18 to 25-year-olds (Swami et al. , 2012). The rising popularity of tattoos among young to middle aged individuals suggests that tattoos may hold different significance sociologically, biologically, and socially than they have throughout the previous century (Wohlrab et al.

  • , 2005);
  • Research is mixed on whether the negative stereotypes associated with tattoos are accurate;
  • A study completed in 2007 in Germany evaluating tattooed and non-tattooed individuals using a Big Five Personality Inventory found that tattooed individuals scored higher on the subscale of extraversion, and lower on the subscale of neuroticism (Wohlrab, 2007);

More recently, a 2012 study of 540 individuals from Austria and Germany examined Big Five personality traits in participants, as well as a need for uniqueness, sensation seeking, self-esteem, religious and spiritual belief, and demographic variables. The researchers in this study concluded that not only do those with tattoos have higher levels of need for uniqueness, sensation seeking, and thrill and adventure seeking, but they have lower levels of self-esteem, attend religious services less, and are generally much less educated than individuals who did not have tattoos (Swami et al.

, 2012). For decades, businesses have attempted to identify personality traits that predict a successful employee. When United States federal law banned the use of polygraphs for employee selection in 1988, hirers began using personality surveys as the primary method for making hiring decisions (Stabile, 2013).

Job interviewers now ask questions designed to reveal components of an individual’s personality in order to evaluate where that individual would best fit within the company structure, how committed to the job the individual would be, and their likelihood of advancing through the company ranks (Wohlrab, 2007).

  1. However, studies as late as 2010 have shown that despite this shift to personality-based hiring, companies still discard potential employees on the basis of their tattoos (Burgess, & Clark 2010);
  2. Researchers have also attempted to determine personality traits capable of predicting successful employees;

A 2014 ten-year longitudinal study of over 8,000 individuals working within multiple big business companies revealed that there is a significant statistical difference between the managerial and working classes in three Big Five personality dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness (Palaiou & Furnham, 2014).

Conscientiousness was shown to be the best predictor of overall successful job performance and individuals who scored higher in this dimension tended to be more achievement oriented (Li, Barrick, Zimmerman, & Chiabaru, 2014).

Neuroticism successfully predicted poor work performance; the lower the levels of neuroticism, the higher the level of performance from the employee (Barrick, Mount, & Judge, 2001). Finally, higher levels of extraversion were linked to higher levels of task performance and proactivity (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006).

  • This study attempts to augment the area of research pertaining to tattooed individuals’ personality traits by investigating whether tattooed individuals differ significantly when compared to their non-tattooed peers in areas related to successful employee traits;

It was hypothesized that tattooed individuals would score higher in conscientiousness and extraversion and lower in neuroticism as measured by the Big Five Inventory. MATERIALS AND METHODS Participants Participants were recruited through a campus-wide e-mail at Whitworth University, Facebook psychology groups, and global online psychology research forums.

  1. Participation was entirely voluntary, and participants could complete the study on their own time at their own pace;
  2. 521 individuals completed the survey, 411 females and 110 males, aged from 18 to 62 years old;

Materials Participants completed an online version of the 44-Question Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) followed by basic demographic questions addressing age, sex, education level, and university affiliation of the participant. Participants were also asked if they had any tattoos.

Participants with tattoos were asked to indicate the size and location of those tattoos. The survey measured the Big Five areas of personality: openness to experience, neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness.

For example, questions measuring conscientiousness asked the participant to rate statements such as: “I am someone who does a thorough job” or “I am a reliable worker” on a five-point Likert scale. Items measuring neuroticism stated, “I am someone who remains calm in tense situations” and “I am someone who is emotionally stable, not easily upset”.

You might be interested:  How Much Does A Forearm Tattoo Cost?

Finally, items related to extraversion included statements such as “I am someone who is talkative” and “I am someone who is full of energy” (John et al. , 1991). Participants were asked to rate their agreement with a series of such statements on a five-point Likert on a scale of one (“strongly disagreeing”) to five (“strongly agreeing”).

The Big Five Inventory has scored between 0. 73 – 0. 82 on Cronbach’s alpha test over the course of its development, giving it a high degree of internal consistency and thus, reliability (Schmitt et al. , 2007). The survey contained nine questions regarding conscientiousness, eight questions regarding neuroticism, and eight questions regarding extraversion.

  • The three personality subscales of conscientiousness, extraversion, and neuroticism were scored using a formula that calculated a numerical value for each personality dimension by adding each individual’s selected scores on the Likert scale, which were then averaged between all participants for an overall mean;

RESULTS A total of N  =521 individuals completed the survey. Of that 521, 411 were female and 110 were male. Participant age varied from 18 to 68 years old. Participants were current students or alumni from 54 universities of various sizes in both rural and urban locations throughout the United States.

  • Two hundred sixty-six (51%) identified themselves as having no tattoos and two hundred fifty-five (49%) identified themselves as having tattoos;
  • A two-tailed independent sample t -test revealed no statistically significant difference in levels of conscientiousness between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals ( p  =;

30; Figure 1). Like conscientiousness, a two-tailed independent sample t-test revealed no statistically significance difference on the neuroticism personality scale between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals ( p  =. 53; Figure 1). Results revealed a statistically significant result regarding extraversion.

A two-tailed independent sample t-test revealed a statistically significance difference between tattooed individuals ( M  = 3. 41,  SD  = 0. 77) and non-tattooed individuals ( M  = 3. 21,  SD  = 0. 83,  p  =.

004; Figure 1). DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were positive traits associated with individuals who have tattoos. It was proposed that tattooed individuals would score higher on the conscientiousness and extraversion domains and lower on the neuroticism domain as measured by the Big Five Inventory than their non-tattooed peers.

Tattooed individuals scored significantly higher in extraversion than their non-tattooed peers, but there were no significant differences in conscientiousness or neuroticism between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals.

Though tattooed individuals did not differ significantly in two of the three areas tested in this study, the significant difference in extraversion suggests that those individuals with one or more tattoos may display higher levels of task performance and proactivity in the business world (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006).

A growing body of literature suggests tattooed individuals display different personality traits than their non-tattooed counterparts, and this study lends further support to this hypothesis. Specifically, the present study supports the findings from several other studies that tattooed individuals consistently score higher in extraversion than their non-tattooed peers (e.

, Stirn, Hinz, & Brahler, 2006; Swami, 2012; Swami et al. , 2012 Wohlrab, Stahl, Rammsayer, & Kappeler, 2007). This study may be limited by the high proportion of female participants ( n  = 411) compared to and male participants n  = 110). A study in which males and females are equally represented could be better extrapolated to the general public.

However, a similar study, performed in 2012 with 45. 6% male participants found very similar results to the present study; tattooed individuals scored significantly higher than non-tattooed individuals in extraversion, but did not score differently in any of the other Big Five personality dimensions (Swami et al.

, 2012). Future research should be conducted with a more age-diverse sample, as the present study had a mean age of 24. 47 years old. Though this study lends itself well to explaining the personality attributes of the younger generation, it does not shed any light onto the baby boomer generation, who are currently the individuals holding CEO, managerial, and most importantly, hiring positions over the younger population (Odgers Berndtson, 2012).

  • Over the next decade, a mass exodus of baby boomers is expected to occur, leaving open positions for the younger generation (Odgers Berndtson, 2012);
  • However, if baby boomers are still utilizing stigmatized hiring criteria regarding tattoos, they are excluding a class of individuals who are more proactive and task performance oriented than their age-matched peers (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006);

Gathering more research regarding generational differences in personality attributes and attitudes towards tattoos may have the potential to change current hiring criteria. Additionally, examining the final two personality domains (agreeableness and openness to experience) in the Big Five Inventory may lead to further information regarding the relationship between tattoos and personality, which could divulge more information regarding desirable characteristics in employees.

Agreeableness has been correlated with success in several specific job fields, such as those that require considerable interpersonal interaction. Similarly, the openness to experience dimension has predicted success in fields where teamwork and training performance are important (Barrick et al.

, 2001). Finally, associations between tattoos and personality could be further explored by examining whether the effect is binary (tattoo vs. non-tattoo) or a gradient (influenced by the quantity of tattoos). Tattooing has rapidly become a prevalent phenomenon in western culture.

It may therefore be time to reexamine the stigma attached to hiring tattooed individuals. Extraversion, which indicates higher levels of task performance and proactivity in a job setting (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006), is starting, through recent research, to become associated with tattooed individuals.

The business industry stands to gain quality employees who may be well suited to long-term success and significant contributions to the company if hiring criteria regarding tattoos were to be reassessed (Sackett, Burris, & Ryan, 1989). REFERENCES

  1. Barrick, M. , Mount, M. , & Judge, T. (2001). Personality and performance at the beginning of the new millennium. What do we know and where do we go next? International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9 , 9-30.
  2. Burgess, M. , & Clark, L. (2010). Do the “savage origins” of tattoos cast a prejudicial shadow on contemporary tattooed individuals? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40 , 746-764.
  3. Horne, J. , Knox, D. , Zusman, J. , and Zusman, M. (2007) Tattoos and piercings: Attitudes, behaviours, and interpretations of college students. College Student Journal, 41 , 1011-1020.
  4. John, O. , Donahue, E. , & Kentle, R. (1991). The Big Five Inventory–Versions 4a and 54. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley, Institute of Personality and Social Research.
  5. Li, N. , Barrick, M. , Zimmerman, R. , & Chiabaru, D. (2014). Retaining the productive employee: The role of personality. The Academy of Management Annals, 8 , 347-395.
  6. Littell, A. (2003). The illustrated self: Construction of meaning through tattoo images and their narratives (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest database. (Order No. AAI3077541).
  7. Odgers Berndtson. (2012). After the Baby Boomers: A Next Generation of Leadership [Brochure]. London: England, Cass Business School.
  8. Palaiou, K. & Furnham, A. (2014). Are bosses unique? Personality facet differences between CEOs and staff in five work sectors. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 66 , 173-196.
  9. Parry, A. (1933). Tattoo; Secrets of a strange art as practiced among the natives of the United States. Madison, WI: Simon and Schuster.
  10. Pearsall, M. , & Ellis, A. (2006). The effects of critical team member assertiveness on team performance and satisfaction. Journal of Management, 32 , 575-594.
  11. Roberts, T. , & Ryan, S. (2002). Tattooing and high risk behavior in adolescents. Pediatrics, 110 , 1058-1063.
  12. Sackett PR, Burris LR, Ryan AM. (1989). Coaching and practice effects in personnel selection. In Coo per CL, Robertson IT (Eds. ), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 145–183). New York: Wiley.
  13. Schmitt, D. , Allik, J. , McCrae, R. , Benet-Martínez, V. , Alcalay, L. , & Ault, L. (2007). The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits: Patterns and profiles of human self-description across 56 nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38 , 173–212.
  14. Stabile, S. (2013). The use of personality tests as a hiring tool: Is the benefit worth the cost?. University of Pennsylvania Journal of Business Law, 4 , 279-288.
  15. Stirn, A. , Hinz, A. , & Brahler, E. (2006). Prevalence of tattooing and body piercing in Germany and perception of health, mental disorders, and sensation seeking among tattooed and body-pierced individuals. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60 , 531-534
  16. Swami, V. (2012). Written on the body? Individual differences between British adults who do and do not obtain a first tattoo. Scandinavian Journal Of Psychology, 53 , 407-412.
  17. Swami, V. , Pietschnig, J. , Bertl, B. , Nader, I. , Stieger, S. , & Voracek, M. (2012). Personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals. Psychological Reports, 111 , 97-106.
  18. Tate, J. , & Shelton, B. (2008) Personality correlates of tattooing and body piercing in a college sample: the kids are alright. Personality and Individual Differences, 45 , 281-285.
  19. Wohlrab, S. (2007). Differences in personality characteristics between body-modified and non-modified individuals: Associations with individual personality traits and their possible evolutionary implications. European Journal Of Personality, 21 , 931-951.
  20. Wohlrab, S. , Fink, B. , & Kappeler, P. (2005). Human body ornaments from an evolutionary perspective – Diversity and function of tattoos, piercings, and scarification. Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft Wein, 134/135 , 1-10.
  21. Wohlrab, S. , Stahl, J. , Rammsayer, T. , & Kappeler, P. (2007) Differences in personality characteristics between body modified and nonmodified individuals and possible evolutionary implications. European Journal of Personality, 21 , 931-951.

Where should you never get a tattoo?

Tattoos are a great way to express yourself. Aside from the endless designs to choose from, tattoos are also placed on different parts of the body. But it’s important to remember that they are a lifelong commitment which is why you should carefully consider their placement.

Do tattoos cause early death?

Abstract – Objectives: At autopsy, tattoos are recorded as part of the external examination. An investigation was undertaken to determine whether negative messages that are tattooed on a decedent may indicate a predisposition to certain fatal outcomes.

  1. Methods: Tattooed and nontattooed persons were classified by demography and forensics;
  2. Tattoos with negative or ominous messages were reviewed;
  3. Statistical comparisons were made;
  4. Results: The mean age of death for tattooed persons was 39 years, compared with 53 years for nontattooed persons (P =;

0001). There was a significant contribution of negative messages in tattoos associated with nonnatural death (P =. 0088) but not with natural death. However, the presence of any tattoo was more significant than the content of the tattoo. Conclusions: Persons with tattoos appear to die earlier than those without.

There may be an epiphenomenon between having tattoos and risk-taking behavior such as drug or alcohol use. A negative tattoo may suggest a predisposition to violent death but is eclipsed by the presence of any tattoo.

Keywords: Autopsy; Drug overdose; Forensic sciences; Suicide; Tattooing; Violence. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

Are tattoos cancerous?

While there is no direct connection between tattoos and skin cancer, there are some ingredients in tattoo ink that may be linked to cancer. When it comes to cancer, black ink can be especially dangerous because it contains a very high level of benzo(a)pyrene.

Are tattoos harmful long term?

When you think about the health risks of getting a tattoo, problems that reveal themselves right away come to mind—like infections and allergic reactions. Now, one later-in-life consequences should worry you too. Toxic particles from tattoo ink penetrate beneath the skin and travel through the body, and that may have implications for long-term health, according to a new study.

  • Writing in the journal Scientific Reports , German and French scientists describe their finding during autopsies of four individuals with tattoos: Using X-ray fluorescent technology, they were able to identify nanoparticles of titanium dioxide, a common ingredient in white and colored tattoo pigments, in those individuals’ lymph nodes;

The role of the lymphatic system, which the lymph nodes are a part of, is to remove toxins and impurities from the body. So it makes sense, the researchers say, that the lymph nodes would collect some of the ink particles injected into the skin. In fact, they wrote in their paper, ” pigmented and enlarged lymph nodes have been noticed in tattooed individuals for decades.

” But their new discovery, that ink particles are found in the lymph nodes at nanoparticle sizes (smaller than 100 nanometers in diameter) is especially disturbing, they say. Particles that small can behave differently in the body and pose different health threats.

You might be interested:  How To Get Rid Of Tattoo Pimples?

Even in non-nanoparticle form, tattoo inks made with titanium dioxide (especially white pigments) have been linked to problems like delayed healing, skin elevation, and itching. In addition to titanium dioxide, the researchers also found a broad range of other tattoo-related nano-scale chemicals in the lymph nodes, as well.

  • To be clear, the research does not provide evidence of any specific health problems that could be linked to tattoos;
  • But it’s one of the first studies to show that nano-scale pigments—some of which are made of toxic elements and preservatives—do migrate and accumulate within the body;

And the authors point out that chronic health effects, like the development of cancer, are difficult to link to events like tattoos, because they only emerge after years or decades of exposure. More research is needed to further understand the true implications of these findings, they scientists say, and to develop guidelines for safer tattoo procedures.

For now, if you’re thinking of getting inked, know that a lot of unanswered questions exist, says first author Ines Schreiver of the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment. “It is important to know that there is not much regulation on tattoo inks in the world that would allow one to state that tattoo inks are generally safe,” Schreiver told Health via email.

“The ingredients have never been approved for the injection into skin, and there is a significant lack of data to explain the so far known side effects like allergies and granuloma formation. ” “There might be more risk associated with tattoos then the ever increasing trend of tattooing might imply,” she added.

What are the benefits of tattoos?

Do tattoos affect your heart?

Are you at risk of endocarditis? – If you are at risk of endocarditis , you should avoid piercing and be very careful if you get a tattoo. During the tattooing and piercing process you risk bacteria entering your blood stream, which will then continue to your heart.

  • The safest place to get a piercing is your ear, as ears don’t contain much blood so the risk is lower;
  • However, The European Society of Cardiology guidelines strongly advise against getting your tongue pierced or having a piercing in any mucous membranes that contain much blood, such as your nose;

Although endocarditis is quite rare it is still a risk. If you are certain you want to go ahead with a piercing you will have to take endocarditis profylax (take antibiotics) before. Please talk to your doctor who will be able to provide you with more information.

Why tattoo is not allowed in army?

i) Indecent tattoos are those that are grossly offensive to modesty, decency or propriety. (ii) Sexist tattoos are those that advocate a philosophy that demeans a person based on gender. (iii) Racist tattoos advocate a philosophy that degrades or demeans a person based on race, ethnicity or region and religion.

Do tattoos make you healthier?

It reduces cortisol levels in the body – Cortisol is a stress hormone and its increase results in increased stress levels. When a person goes through the tattooing process, it reduces cortisol levels. As a consequence, the stress levels are decreased in the person.

Can a tattoo change your personality?

Author:  Sophia Carter – Institution:  Whitworth University ABSTRACT Research supports personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals. However, few studies have investigated whether any of these differences are associated with positive indicators for tattooed individuals.

  1. In this study, personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals in three of the Big Five personality areas considered critical to successful employees in the workforce were examined;

Previous research has established that higher levels of conscientiousness and extraversion coupled with lower levels of neuroticism are indicators of high-quality employees. The present study attempts to augment this line of research by adding the dimension of tattoos; investigating whether individuals with tattoos report more positive personality indicators in these dimensions than individuals without tattoos.

Thus it was hypothesized that tattooed individuals would report higher levels of conscientiousness and extraversion and lower levels of neuroticism than non-tattooed individuals. For this purpose,  N  = 521 individuals completed an online survey, which included the 44-Question Big Five Inventory.

An independent sample t -test revealed a statistically significant difference between tattooed ( M  = 3. 41,  SD  = 0. 77) and non-tattooed ( M  = 3. 21,  SD  = 0. 83) groups in the Big Five personality area of extraversion,  t  (521) = 0. 39,  p  =. 004,  d  = 0.

25. There were no other statistically significant differences. These findings indicate that tattooed individuals may be better employees than previously believed, as the extraversion component of the Big Five Inventory, has been found to be a critical indicator of successful job performance.

INTRODUCTION Tattoos have increased in popularity over the last two decades; almost one in five people across all age groups had a tattoo as of 2012, and one in ten people have two or more tattoos (Swami et al. , 2012). Nearly 40% of young adults (18-25) have at least one tattoo, whereas only 15-16% of members of this age group in 1990 were tattooed (Swami et al.

, 2012). Despite the increase in tattoos within younger generations, tattooed individuals face discrimination, negative stigma, and lower levels of employment than their non-tattooed counterparts (Horne, Knox, Zusman, & Zusman, 2007).

Very little research has examined whether individuals with tattoos score differently than non-tattooed individuals on scales measuring personality traits perceived as positive. This study seeks to address this gap by identifying personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals and the potential implications of those differences for employment.

Historically, the traits associated with tattooed individuals have depended significantly on the culture and circumstances of those individuals. Captain Cook explored Polynesia in 1769 and observed the social and spiritual significance of tattoos in Polynesian culture.

The location of a tattoo on an individual’s body and the specific tattoo design displayed social, hierarchal, and genealogical information about the owner of the tattoo, as well as signaling particular aspects of his or her character (Parry, 1933). Tattooing was considered a sacred ceremony, and most tattoos were thought to fetch spiritual power, protection, and strength.

  1. Almost every Polynesian individual had tattoos, and many of Captain Cook’s men left their voyage with a permanent memento of their expedition, which was considered a great honor (Parry, 1933);
  2. Similarly, Native Americans report a long and extensive history of traditional tattoos;

Depending on the tribe, tattoos could signal hierarchy or a specific role within the tribe, mark a warrior’s prowess in battle, or be considered marks of beauty (Littell, 2003). Since then, through the shift towards Western culture and through changing definitions of art, tattoos have become more associated with criminals and the sexually promiscuous (Wohlrab, Fink, & Kappeler, 2005).

Recent studies have shown there are still many stereotypes attached to individuals with tattoos: academic struggle, broken homes, traumatic childhoods, rarely or never attending church, poor decision-making skills, and susceptibility to peer pressure (Roberts & Ryan, 2002).

However, these stereotypes may not accurately represent the current tattoo climate. Forty percent of 26 to 40-year-olds now have a tattoo, closely followed by 36% of 18 to 25-year-olds (Swami et al. , 2012). The rising popularity of tattoos among young to middle aged individuals suggests that tattoos may hold different significance sociologically, biologically, and socially than they have throughout the previous century (Wohlrab et al.

  • , 2005);
  • Research is mixed on whether the negative stereotypes associated with tattoos are accurate;
  • A study completed in 2007 in Germany evaluating tattooed and non-tattooed individuals using a Big Five Personality Inventory found that tattooed individuals scored higher on the subscale of extraversion, and lower on the subscale of neuroticism (Wohlrab, 2007);

More recently, a 2012 study of 540 individuals from Austria and Germany examined Big Five personality traits in participants, as well as a need for uniqueness, sensation seeking, self-esteem, religious and spiritual belief, and demographic variables. The researchers in this study concluded that not only do those with tattoos have higher levels of need for uniqueness, sensation seeking, and thrill and adventure seeking, but they have lower levels of self-esteem, attend religious services less, and are generally much less educated than individuals who did not have tattoos (Swami et al.

, 2012). For decades, businesses have attempted to identify personality traits that predict a successful employee. When United States federal law banned the use of polygraphs for employee selection in 1988, hirers began using personality surveys as the primary method for making hiring decisions (Stabile, 2013).

Job interviewers now ask questions designed to reveal components of an individual’s personality in order to evaluate where that individual would best fit within the company structure, how committed to the job the individual would be, and their likelihood of advancing through the company ranks (Wohlrab, 2007).

However, studies as late as 2010 have shown that despite this shift to personality-based hiring, companies still discard potential employees on the basis of their tattoos (Burgess, & Clark 2010). Researchers have also attempted to determine personality traits capable of predicting successful employees.

A 2014 ten-year longitudinal study of over 8,000 individuals working within multiple big business companies revealed that there is a significant statistical difference between the managerial and working classes in three Big Five personality dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness (Palaiou & Furnham, 2014).

  1. Conscientiousness was shown to be the best predictor of overall successful job performance and individuals who scored higher in this dimension tended to be more achievement oriented (Li, Barrick, Zimmerman, & Chiabaru, 2014);

Neuroticism successfully predicted poor work performance; the lower the levels of neuroticism, the higher the level of performance from the employee (Barrick, Mount, & Judge, 2001). Finally, higher levels of extraversion were linked to higher levels of task performance and proactivity (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006).

This study attempts to augment the area of research pertaining to tattooed individuals’ personality traits by investigating whether tattooed individuals differ significantly when compared to their non-tattooed peers in areas related to successful employee traits.

It was hypothesized that tattooed individuals would score higher in conscientiousness and extraversion and lower in neuroticism as measured by the Big Five Inventory. MATERIALS AND METHODS Participants Participants were recruited through a campus-wide e-mail at Whitworth University, Facebook psychology groups, and global online psychology research forums.

  1. Participation was entirely voluntary, and participants could complete the study on their own time at their own pace;
  2. 521 individuals completed the survey, 411 females and 110 males, aged from 18 to 62 years old;

Materials Participants completed an online version of the 44-Question Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) followed by basic demographic questions addressing age, sex, education level, and university affiliation of the participant. Participants were also asked if they had any tattoos.

Participants with tattoos were asked to indicate the size and location of those tattoos. The survey measured the Big Five areas of personality: openness to experience, neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness.

For example, questions measuring conscientiousness asked the participant to rate statements such as: “I am someone who does a thorough job” or “I am a reliable worker” on a five-point Likert scale. Items measuring neuroticism stated, “I am someone who remains calm in tense situations” and “I am someone who is emotionally stable, not easily upset”.

  1. Finally, items related to extraversion included statements such as “I am someone who is talkative” and “I am someone who is full of energy” (John et al;
  2. , 1991);
  3. Participants were asked to rate their agreement with a series of such statements on a five-point Likert on a scale of one (“strongly disagreeing”) to five (“strongly agreeing”);

The Big Five Inventory has scored between 0. 73 – 0. 82 on Cronbach’s alpha test over the course of its development, giving it a high degree of internal consistency and thus, reliability (Schmitt et al. , 2007). The survey contained nine questions regarding conscientiousness, eight questions regarding neuroticism, and eight questions regarding extraversion.

The three personality subscales of conscientiousness, extraversion, and neuroticism were scored using a formula that calculated a numerical value for each personality dimension by adding each individual’s selected scores on the Likert scale, which were then averaged between all participants for an overall mean.

RESULTS A total of N  =521 individuals completed the survey. Of that 521, 411 were female and 110 were male. Participant age varied from 18 to 68 years old. Participants were current students or alumni from 54 universities of various sizes in both rural and urban locations throughout the United States.

  • Two hundred sixty-six (51%) identified themselves as having no tattoos and two hundred fifty-five (49%) identified themselves as having tattoos;
  • A two-tailed independent sample t -test revealed no statistically significant difference in levels of conscientiousness between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals ( p  =;
You might be interested:  How Much Does It Cost To Get A Tattoo Removed?

30; Figure 1). Like conscientiousness, a two-tailed independent sample t-test revealed no statistically significance difference on the neuroticism personality scale between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals ( p  =. 53; Figure 1). Results revealed a statistically significant result regarding extraversion.

A two-tailed independent sample t-test revealed a statistically significance difference between tattooed individuals ( M  = 3. 41,  SD  = 0. 77) and non-tattooed individuals ( M  = 3. 21,  SD  = 0. 83,  p  =.

004; Figure 1). DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were positive traits associated with individuals who have tattoos. It was proposed that tattooed individuals would score higher on the conscientiousness and extraversion domains and lower on the neuroticism domain as measured by the Big Five Inventory than their non-tattooed peers.

Tattooed individuals scored significantly higher in extraversion than their non-tattooed peers, but there were no significant differences in conscientiousness or neuroticism between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals.

Though tattooed individuals did not differ significantly in two of the three areas tested in this study, the significant difference in extraversion suggests that those individuals with one or more tattoos may display higher levels of task performance and proactivity in the business world (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006).

A growing body of literature suggests tattooed individuals display different personality traits than their non-tattooed counterparts, and this study lends further support to this hypothesis. Specifically, the present study supports the findings from several other studies that tattooed individuals consistently score higher in extraversion than their non-tattooed peers (e.

, Stirn, Hinz, & Brahler, 2006; Swami, 2012; Swami et al. , 2012 Wohlrab, Stahl, Rammsayer, & Kappeler, 2007). This study may be limited by the high proportion of female participants ( n  = 411) compared to and male participants n  = 110). A study in which males and females are equally represented could be better extrapolated to the general public.

However, a similar study, performed in 2012 with 45. 6% male participants found very similar results to the present study; tattooed individuals scored significantly higher than non-tattooed individuals in extraversion, but did not score differently in any of the other Big Five personality dimensions (Swami et al.

, 2012). Future research should be conducted with a more age-diverse sample, as the present study had a mean age of 24. 47 years old. Though this study lends itself well to explaining the personality attributes of the younger generation, it does not shed any light onto the baby boomer generation, who are currently the individuals holding CEO, managerial, and most importantly, hiring positions over the younger population (Odgers Berndtson, 2012).

  1. Over the next decade, a mass exodus of baby boomers is expected to occur, leaving open positions for the younger generation (Odgers Berndtson, 2012);
  2. However, if baby boomers are still utilizing stigmatized hiring criteria regarding tattoos, they are excluding a class of individuals who are more proactive and task performance oriented than their age-matched peers (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006);

Gathering more research regarding generational differences in personality attributes and attitudes towards tattoos may have the potential to change current hiring criteria. Additionally, examining the final two personality domains (agreeableness and openness to experience) in the Big Five Inventory may lead to further information regarding the relationship between tattoos and personality, which could divulge more information regarding desirable characteristics in employees.

Agreeableness has been correlated with success in several specific job fields, such as those that require considerable interpersonal interaction. Similarly, the openness to experience dimension has predicted success in fields where teamwork and training performance are important (Barrick et al.

, 2001). Finally, associations between tattoos and personality could be further explored by examining whether the effect is binary (tattoo vs. non-tattoo) or a gradient (influenced by the quantity of tattoos). Tattooing has rapidly become a prevalent phenomenon in western culture.

It may therefore be time to reexamine the stigma attached to hiring tattooed individuals. Extraversion, which indicates higher levels of task performance and proactivity in a job setting (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006), is starting, through recent research, to become associated with tattooed individuals.

The business industry stands to gain quality employees who may be well suited to long-term success and significant contributions to the company if hiring criteria regarding tattoos were to be reassessed (Sackett, Burris, & Ryan, 1989). REFERENCES

  1. Barrick, M. , Mount, M. , & Judge, T. (2001). Personality and performance at the beginning of the new millennium. What do we know and where do we go next? International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9 , 9-30.
  2. Burgess, M. , & Clark, L. (2010). Do the “savage origins” of tattoos cast a prejudicial shadow on contemporary tattooed individuals? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40 , 746-764.
  3. Horne, J. , Knox, D. , Zusman, J. , and Zusman, M. (2007) Tattoos and piercings: Attitudes, behaviours, and interpretations of college students. College Student Journal, 41 , 1011-1020.
  4. John, O. , Donahue, E. , & Kentle, R. (1991). The Big Five Inventory–Versions 4a and 54. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley, Institute of Personality and Social Research.
  5. Li, N. , Barrick, M. , Zimmerman, R. , & Chiabaru, D. (2014). Retaining the productive employee: The role of personality. The Academy of Management Annals, 8 , 347-395.
  6. Littell, A. (2003). The illustrated self: Construction of meaning through tattoo images and their narratives (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest database. (Order No. AAI3077541).
  7. Odgers Berndtson. (2012). After the Baby Boomers: A Next Generation of Leadership [Brochure]. London: England, Cass Business School.
  8. Palaiou, K. & Furnham, A. (2014). Are bosses unique? Personality facet differences between CEOs and staff in five work sectors. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 66 , 173-196.
  9. Parry, A. (1933). Tattoo; Secrets of a strange art as practiced among the natives of the United States. Madison, WI: Simon and Schuster.
  10. Pearsall, M. , & Ellis, A. (2006). The effects of critical team member assertiveness on team performance and satisfaction. Journal of Management, 32 , 575-594.
  11. Roberts, T. , & Ryan, S. (2002). Tattooing and high risk behavior in adolescents. Pediatrics, 110 , 1058-1063.
  12. Sackett PR, Burris LR, Ryan AM. (1989). Coaching and practice effects in personnel selection. In Coo per CL, Robertson IT (Eds. ), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 145–183). New York: Wiley.
  13. Schmitt, D. , Allik, J. , McCrae, R. , Benet-Martínez, V. , Alcalay, L. , & Ault, L. (2007). The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits: Patterns and profiles of human self-description across 56 nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38 , 173–212.
  14. Stabile, S. (2013). The use of personality tests as a hiring tool: Is the benefit worth the cost?. University of Pennsylvania Journal of Business Law, 4 , 279-288.
  15. Stirn, A. , Hinz, A. , & Brahler, E. (2006). Prevalence of tattooing and body piercing in Germany and perception of health, mental disorders, and sensation seeking among tattooed and body-pierced individuals. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60 , 531-534
  16. Swami, V. (2012). Written on the body? Individual differences between British adults who do and do not obtain a first tattoo. Scandinavian Journal Of Psychology, 53 , 407-412.
  17. Swami, V. , Pietschnig, J. , Bertl, B. , Nader, I. , Stieger, S. , & Voracek, M. (2012). Personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals. Psychological Reports, 111 , 97-106.
  18. Tate, J. , & Shelton, B. (2008) Personality correlates of tattooing and body piercing in a college sample: the kids are alright. Personality and Individual Differences, 45 , 281-285.
  19. Wohlrab, S. (2007). Differences in personality characteristics between body-modified and non-modified individuals: Associations with individual personality traits and their possible evolutionary implications. European Journal Of Personality, 21 , 931-951.
  20. Wohlrab, S. , Fink, B. , & Kappeler, P. (2005). Human body ornaments from an evolutionary perspective – Diversity and function of tattoos, piercings, and scarification. Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft Wein, 134/135 , 1-10.
  21. Wohlrab, S. , Stahl, J. , Rammsayer, T. , & Kappeler, P. (2007) Differences in personality characteristics between body modified and nonmodified individuals and possible evolutionary implications. European Journal of Personality, 21 , 931-951.

How long do permanent tattoos last?

If you take good care of the tattoo, and you’ve applied it properly, it will last you two weeks for sure. Permanent Tattoos – these tattoos will last you a lifetime. That is unless you decide to go for laser tattoo removal, in which case they’ll last you how long you want them to last.

How do tattoos stay forever?

Guess how tattoos stay there forever, even as your skin cells die and are replaced? French researchers say they have found the answer, and it’s a little bit surprising. They found that immune system cells called macrophages eat the ink, and then pass it to their replacements when they die.

So the tattoo ink doesn’t stain skin cells, as many people had believed. Instead, microscopic blobs of ink are passed along from one generation of macrophages to another, according to the report in the Journal of Experimental Medicine.

“We further demonstrated that tattoo pigment particles can undergo successive cycles of capture–release–recapture without any tattoo vanishing,” Anna Baranska of the French research institute INSERM in Marseille and colleagues wrote. Why You Should Not Get A Tattoo A devotee wears a Buddhist amulet over his tradtional tattoos during an annual sacred tattoo festival, at the Wat Bang Phra temple on March 3, 2018 in Nakhon Chaisi district, Thailand’s Nakhon Pathom Province. Lillian Suwanrumpha / AFP – Getty Images They were doing experiments aimed at understanding the action of immune cells in the skin of mice. They created genetically engineered mice whose macrophages could be killed easily, and were monitoring how and when they were replaced by new macrophages.

They used tattoos in the mice tails to track this. Researchers have known that immune system cells are involved in helping the body take up tattoos. The ink doesn’t simply stain skin cells, because these cells die over the years and are replaced.

But it was assumed that the ink was staining skin cells called fibroblasts, which make up the connective tissue, and that the ink was continually replaced by macrophages. Instead, the French team found that macrophages took up the ink, released it when they died, and that fresh macrophages then gobbled it. Why You Should Not Get A Tattoo It’s not surprising that macrophages might be involved in this process. The name comes from the Greek for “big eater. ” It’s their job to eat outside invaders. “Owing to their strategic positioning at body barriers, macrophages capture a wide range of exogenous (outside) particulates,” Baranska and colleagues wrote. Their findings may open a better way to remove tattoos, they said.

  1. “We demonstrated that the pigment particles that remain at the site of injection and cause the long-term tattoo color were exclusively found within dermal macrophages,” they wrote;
  2. They found no colored fibroblasts;

Lasers can be used to take off unwanted tattoos by activating other immune cells that carry the ink away. But it can be a less-than-perfect process, depending on the type of ink used. Why You Should Not Get A Tattoo Former England captain David Beckham shows his tattoo after he was asked to by students at Peking University during his visit on March 24, 2013 in Beijing. Reuters file Dermal macrophages don’t move around the body like some other immune cells do, so the trick may be to activate other immune system cells that can grab the ink and take it off to the lymph nodes, to be carried off in lymph fluid. Some kind of trick to kill off the ink-noshing macrophages for a while, so that other immune cells can take away the ink, may be the secret, they said..