Why To Not Get A Tattoo?

Why To Not Get A Tattoo
Know the risks – Tattoos breach the skin, which means that skin infections and other complications are possible, including:

  • Allergic reactions. Tattoo dyes — especially red, green, yellow and blue dyes — can cause allergic skin reactions, such as an itchy rash at the tattoo site. This can occur even years after you get the tattoo.
  • Skin infections. A skin infection is possible after tattooing.
  • Other skin problems. Sometimes an area of inflammation called a granuloma can form around tattoo ink. Tattooing also can lead to keloids — raised areas caused by an overgrowth of scar tissue.
  • Bloodborne diseases. If the equipment used to create your tattoo is contaminated with infected blood, you can contract various bloodborne diseases — including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
  • MRI complications. Rarely, tattoos or permanent makeup might cause swelling or burning in the affected areas during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams. In some cases, tattoo pigments can interfere with the quality of the image.

Medication or other treatment might be needed if you experience an allergic reaction to the tattoo ink or you develop an infection or other skin problem near a tattoo.

Do tattoos shorten your life?

the MPR take: – Having a tattoo may mean an earlier death, says a new report in the American Journal of Clinical Pathology. Investigators compared the deaths of people with and without tattoos and found that people with tattoos appeared to die earlier than people without (mean age of death: tattooed: 39yrs; nontattooed: 53yrs).

What people should not get a tattoo?

When should I not get a tattoo?

Blood Disorders – Why To Not Get A Tattoo There are several different types of blood related disorders or conditions. Some of them cause excessive bleeding or issues with clotting, which is not ideal for tattooing. Those with blood disorders may be turned away by shops due to the risks and issues posed by being tattooed. Blood disorders could lessen the artists visibility, extra wiping could cause the stencil to come off early compromising the design, and even dilute or push out some of the tattoo ink.

Is it OK to not like tattoos?

Ok. So this isn’t perhaps immediately impacting on my day to day well-being/ truly offending me. It’s just making me quite depressed. Now the fact of the matter is, I REALLY REALLY dislike tattoos. Don’t get me wrong, I don’t hate people because/ if they have tattoos, my best friend does indeed have one.

I have just always found tattoos really strange, ugly and unnatural, and it’s making me depressed about how conformist everybody is to this “fad”. Why would anyone choose to inject filthy ink under their skin, to create some poorly drawn picture/ pattern? As the weeks go by, I see more and more friends/ acquaintances getting them, and, in a way, it makes me feel more and more alone.

Not that I’m missing out on something, but in that I feel like I’m the only person in the world who has this opinion. And please do not lecture me on how tats are this “Beautiful, unique, individual artform”. I have heard that argument a billion times and do not buy it.

You’re not. Not everyone likes tattoos, why should everyone be entitled to love them? I personally find tattoos somewhat attractive. As long as you’re not completely covered though, and the tattoo better not have some stupid message beneath it or anything.

Tattoos on the face are a no-no for me too. I couldn’t give a toss about how people think it’s unnatural or ugly. Don’t care. See what I’m doing? It’s a preference. You don’t like tattoos at all, that’s your preference. And that preference is fine. Also, none of my friends find tattoos attractive as far as I know.

  • EDIT: If they get them that’s their business;
  • Not yours;
  • I don’t like any body mods really, don’t like ear rings etc, don’t mind watches but that’s it, would never wear jewelry;
  • what do you think we should say? If you are asking whether it’s fair not to like tattoos it’s fair;

Some people like them and have the freedom to get them, some people dislike them and don’t get them. If people around you want to get tattooed it is their decision. It’s your opinion, lots of people feel this way and although I don’t agree with I can respect it.

It’s definitely not a ‘fad’ though people have been getting tattoos since the 1800s, you say you don’t understand why people want them but have you tried asking your friends why they got theirs and understanding what their tattoos mean to them? I say this as someone who has no tattoos but plans to get some in the future.

Also, I have to disagree with ‘filthy ink’, the ink is clean, tattoo shops are clean because they have to be otherwise you can get infections from tattoos. Second, ‘poorly drawn picture/ pattern’, are you serious, I know some tattoos look sh*tty but have you ever actually seen a well done tattoo? They can look as good, if not better than most traditional visual art forms. This tattoo isn’t poorly drawn, it takes skill to draw out the stencil and then tattoo it on someone. A skill that like all other skills took hours of practice and dedication to perfect. It’s fine if you don’t like them but at least have respect for it as an artform. ( Original post by Danny Igbinidu ) It’s your opinion, lots of people feel this way and although I don’t agree with I can respect it.

It’s definitely not a ‘fad’ though people have been getting tattoos since the 1800s, you say you don’t understand why people want them but have you tried asking your friends why they got theirs and understanding what their tattoos mean to them?Also, I have to disagree with ‘filthy ink’, the ink is clean, tattoo shops are clean because they have to be otherwise you can get infections from tattoos.

Second, ‘poorly drawn picture/ pattern’, are you serious, I know some tattoos look ****ty but have you ever actually seen a well done tattoo? They can look as good, if not better than most traditional visual art forms. This tattoo isn’t poorly drawn, it takes skill to draw out the stencil and then tattoo it on someone. A skill that like all other skills took hours of practice and dedication to perfect. It’s fine if you don’t like them but at least have respect for it as an artform. These are beautifully drawn! I’m not too fussed about tattoos either way as long as they don’t look tacky.

You think its unnatural and ugly? I really don’t give a ****. As surprising as it may be to you, I didn’t get tattoos for you, I didn’t do it to look ‘attractive’ and I sure as hell didn’t do it because I’m ill.

Just like my other body mods I did it to feel more comfortable I my own skin. If that disgusts you then, to be polite; leave me alone. Well don’t get one I debated over getting a tattoo, I had quite a few designs and ideas that I liked. I’m into rock music, and sometimes feel a bit naked amongst other fans without any ink But the idea of having to live an entire life with the same marking is a bit daunting. In the end I’ve decided to remain ink-less. Each to their own really. There are many things people don’t like, but so long as it doesn’t directly effect our lives we should be tolerant of it. If getting tattooed head to toe, with body modifications and piercings everywhere makes someone happy, who I’m I to judge? ( Original post by Mochassassin ) These are beautifully drawn! I’m not too fussed about tattoos either way as long as they don’t look tacky.

A lot of tattoos can look tacky but I tend not to criticise them even if they are tacky, unless they’re super generic like tribal tattoos, because tattoos generally mean something to people and they get them for a reason so it could look tacky to you but mean the world to them.

( Original post by Phipp91 ) Ok. So this isn’t perhaps immediately impacting on my day to day well-being/ truly offending me. It’s just making me quite depressed. Now the fact of the matter is, I REALLY REALLY dislike tattoos. Don’t get me wrong, I don’t hate people because/ if they have tattoos, my best friend does indeed have one.

I have just always found tattoos really strange, ugly and unnatural, and it’s making me depressed about how conformist everybody is to this “fad”. Why would anyone choose to inject filthy ink under their skin , to create some poorly drawn picture/ pattern? As the weeks go by, I see more and more friends/ acquaintances getting them, and, in a way, it makes me feel more and more alone.

Not that I’m missing out on something, but in that I feel like I’m the only person in the world who has this opinion. And please do not lecture me on how tats are this “Beautiful, unique, individual artform”. I have heard that argument a billion times and do not buy it.

sterile ink surely, unless your friends are all doing it at home with a biro. Seeing as tattoos or body art has existed for thousands of years, I wouldn’t really call it a ‘fad’ I find only good looking ppl look good with tattoos.

It’s like short hair, long hair. Tattoos are art, if you think tattoos are ugly you think pretty photos are ugly just because it’s on someone’s skin. Silly much, no? So tattoos aren’t ugly, because a dragon isn’t ugly. You just don’t find it necessary to see it on someone’s face ( Original post by HeskeyLAD ) You’re not. Not everyone likes tattoos, why should everyone be entitled to love them? I personally find tattoos somewhat attractive. As long as you’re not completely covered though, and the tattoo better not have some stupid message beneath it or anything. Tattoos on the face are a no-no for me too.

  • I couldn’t give a toss about how people think it’s unnatural or ugly;
  • Don’t care;
  • See what I’m doing? It’s a preference;
  • You don’t like tattoos at all, that’s your preference;
  • And that preference is fine;
  • Also, none of my friends find tattoos attractive as far as I know;

EDIT: If they get them that’s their business. Not yours. The thing is though, “saying it’s non of your business” isn’t easy when you severely dislike something and they’re everywhere you go now. From the lad serving you in your local shop with his black and white rose tattoo on the back of his hand, to a lady once who was a very normal looking everyday blonde lady about early 40’s who was the receptionist when I was signing in at a company I was working for temporarily.

  1. She had one on the underside of her right forearm which I could see when she handed me the sign in book;
  2. To me, it just didn’t suit her;
  3. It used to be, tattoos were only worn by a certain type of person (and no I’m not saying just dodgy people lol!), like rockers or punks etc and they suited them;

It went with their overall image. My analogy for this would be, let’s take an extreme type of music that most people generally dislike, let’s say death metal and I was walking ’round with a speaker on each shoulder playing that as I was walking ’round, then let’s say a third of all people did the same, that’s what it’s like for me.

What is the disadvantage of tattoo?

Know the risks – Tattoos breach the skin, which means that skin infections and other complications are possible, including:

  • Allergic reactions. Tattoo dyes — especially red, green, yellow and blue dyes — can cause allergic skin reactions, such as an itchy rash at the tattoo site. This can occur even years after you get the tattoo.
  • Skin infections. A skin infection is possible after tattooing.
  • Other skin problems. Sometimes an area of inflammation called a granuloma can form around tattoo ink. Tattooing also can lead to keloids — raised areas caused by an overgrowth of scar tissue.
  • Bloodborne diseases. If the equipment used to create your tattoo is contaminated with infected blood, you can contract various bloodborne diseases — including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), hepatitis B and hepatitis C.
  • MRI complications. Rarely, tattoos or permanent makeup might cause swelling or burning in the affected areas during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams. In some cases, tattoo pigments can interfere with the quality of the image.

Medication or other treatment might be needed if you experience an allergic reaction to the tattoo ink or you develop an infection or other skin problem near a tattoo.

Do tattoos poison your blood?

– Ink poisoning doesn’t occur from drawing on your skin. Ink may temporarily stain your skin, but it will not poison you.

Where should you never get a tattoo?

Tattoos are a great way to express yourself. Aside from the endless designs to choose from, tattoos are also placed on different parts of the body. But it’s important to remember that they are a lifelong commitment which is why you should carefully consider their placement.

Do tattoos cause early death?

Abstract – Objectives: At autopsy, tattoos are recorded as part of the external examination. An investigation was undertaken to determine whether negative messages that are tattooed on a decedent may indicate a predisposition to certain fatal outcomes.

Methods: Tattooed and nontattooed persons were classified by demography and forensics. Tattoos with negative or ominous messages were reviewed. Statistical comparisons were made. Results: The mean age of death for tattooed persons was 39 years, compared with 53 years for nontattooed persons (P =.

0001). There was a significant contribution of negative messages in tattoos associated with nonnatural death (P =. 0088) but not with natural death. However, the presence of any tattoo was more significant than the content of the tattoo. Conclusions: Persons with tattoos appear to die earlier than those without.

There may be an epiphenomenon between having tattoos and risk-taking behavior such as drug or alcohol use. A negative tattoo may suggest a predisposition to violent death but is eclipsed by the presence of any tattoo.

Keywords: Autopsy; Drug overdose; Forensic sciences; Suicide; Tattooing; Violence. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

What is the psychology behind tattoos?

So why are tattoos so popular? – Tattoos can symbolize a life story. In some cases, tattoos help process traumatic life events, like loss of a family member or close friend. It can also be a personal adventure. Researchers around the world who study human behaviors have been interested in finding out what makes people modify their body.

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What are the pros and cons of tattoos?

Top 10 Tattoos Pros & Cons – Summary List

Tattoos Pros Tattoos Cons
Tattoos can make you more attractive Tattoos can be expensive
Can cover up your skin Getting tattoos can be painful
Getting tattoos may increase your confidence Tattoos will fade over time
Tattoos can help you remember loved ones You may choose the wrong design

.

Do tattoos have long term effects?

When you think about the health risks of getting a tattoo, problems that reveal themselves right away come to mind—like infections and allergic reactions. Now, one later-in-life consequences should worry you too. Toxic particles from tattoo ink penetrate beneath the skin and travel through the body, and that may have implications for long-term health, according to a new study.

Writing in the journal Scientific Reports , German and French scientists describe their finding during autopsies of four individuals with tattoos: Using X-ray fluorescent technology, they were able to identify nanoparticles of titanium dioxide, a common ingredient in white and colored tattoo pigments, in those individuals’ lymph nodes.

The role of the lymphatic system, which the lymph nodes are a part of, is to remove toxins and impurities from the body. So it makes sense, the researchers say, that the lymph nodes would collect some of the ink particles injected into the skin. In fact, they wrote in their paper, ” pigmented and enlarged lymph nodes have been noticed in tattooed individuals for decades.

” But their new discovery, that ink particles are found in the lymph nodes at nanoparticle sizes (smaller than 100 nanometers in diameter) is especially disturbing, they say. Particles that small can behave differently in the body and pose different health threats.

Even in non-nanoparticle form, tattoo inks made with titanium dioxide (especially white pigments) have been linked to problems like delayed healing, skin elevation, and itching. In addition to titanium dioxide, the researchers also found a broad range of other tattoo-related nano-scale chemicals in the lymph nodes, as well.

  1. To be clear, the research does not provide evidence of any specific health problems that could be linked to tattoos;
  2. But it’s one of the first studies to show that nano-scale pigments—some of which are made of toxic elements and preservatives—do migrate and accumulate within the body;

And the authors point out that chronic health effects, like the development of cancer, are difficult to link to events like tattoos, because they only emerge after years or decades of exposure. More research is needed to further understand the true implications of these findings, they scientists say, and to develop guidelines for safer tattoo procedures.

  1. For now, if you’re thinking of getting inked, know that a lot of unanswered questions exist, says first author Ines Schreiver of the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment;
  2. “It is important to know that there is not much regulation on tattoo inks in the world that would allow one to state that tattoo inks are generally safe,” Schreiver told Health via email;

“The ingredients have never been approved for the injection into skin, and there is a significant lack of data to explain the so far known side effects like allergies and granuloma formation. ” “There might be more risk associated with tattoos then the ever increasing trend of tattooing might imply,” she added.

What does having tattoos say about a person?

Author:  Sophia Carter – Institution:  Whitworth University ABSTRACT Research supports personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals. However, few studies have investigated whether any of these differences are associated with positive indicators for tattooed individuals.

In this study, personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals in three of the Big Five personality areas considered critical to successful employees in the workforce were examined.

Previous research has established that higher levels of conscientiousness and extraversion coupled with lower levels of neuroticism are indicators of high-quality employees. The present study attempts to augment this line of research by adding the dimension of tattoos; investigating whether individuals with tattoos report more positive personality indicators in these dimensions than individuals without tattoos.

Thus it was hypothesized that tattooed individuals would report higher levels of conscientiousness and extraversion and lower levels of neuroticism than non-tattooed individuals. For this purpose,  N  = 521 individuals completed an online survey, which included the 44-Question Big Five Inventory.

An independent sample t -test revealed a statistically significant difference between tattooed ( M  = 3. 41,  SD  = 0. 77) and non-tattooed ( M  = 3. 21,  SD  = 0. 83) groups in the Big Five personality area of extraversion,  t  (521) = 0. 39,  p  =. 004,  d  = 0.

  1. 25;
  2. There were no other statistically significant differences;
  3. These findings indicate that tattooed individuals may be better employees than previously believed, as the extraversion component of the Big Five Inventory, has been found to be a critical indicator of successful job performance;

INTRODUCTION Tattoos have increased in popularity over the last two decades; almost one in five people across all age groups had a tattoo as of 2012, and one in ten people have two or more tattoos (Swami et al. , 2012). Nearly 40% of young adults (18-25) have at least one tattoo, whereas only 15-16% of members of this age group in 1990 were tattooed (Swami et al.

  1. , 2012);
  2. Despite the increase in tattoos within younger generations, tattooed individuals face discrimination, negative stigma, and lower levels of employment than their non-tattooed counterparts (Horne, Knox, Zusman, & Zusman, 2007);

Very little research has examined whether individuals with tattoos score differently than non-tattooed individuals on scales measuring personality traits perceived as positive. This study seeks to address this gap by identifying personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals and the potential implications of those differences for employment.

Historically, the traits associated with tattooed individuals have depended significantly on the culture and circumstances of those individuals. Captain Cook explored Polynesia in 1769 and observed the social and spiritual significance of tattoos in Polynesian culture.

The location of a tattoo on an individual’s body and the specific tattoo design displayed social, hierarchal, and genealogical information about the owner of the tattoo, as well as signaling particular aspects of his or her character (Parry, 1933). Tattooing was considered a sacred ceremony, and most tattoos were thought to fetch spiritual power, protection, and strength.

Almost every Polynesian individual had tattoos, and many of Captain Cook’s men left their voyage with a permanent memento of their expedition, which was considered a great honor (Parry, 1933). Similarly, Native Americans report a long and extensive history of traditional tattoos.

Depending on the tribe, tattoos could signal hierarchy or a specific role within the tribe, mark a warrior’s prowess in battle, or be considered marks of beauty (Littell, 2003). Since then, through the shift towards Western culture and through changing definitions of art, tattoos have become more associated with criminals and the sexually promiscuous (Wohlrab, Fink, & Kappeler, 2005).

Recent studies have shown there are still many stereotypes attached to individuals with tattoos: academic struggle, broken homes, traumatic childhoods, rarely or never attending church, poor decision-making skills, and susceptibility to peer pressure (Roberts & Ryan, 2002).

However, these stereotypes may not accurately represent the current tattoo climate. Forty percent of 26 to 40-year-olds now have a tattoo, closely followed by 36% of 18 to 25-year-olds (Swami et al. , 2012). The rising popularity of tattoos among young to middle aged individuals suggests that tattoos may hold different significance sociologically, biologically, and socially than they have throughout the previous century (Wohlrab et al.

, 2005). Research is mixed on whether the negative stereotypes associated with tattoos are accurate. A study completed in 2007 in Germany evaluating tattooed and non-tattooed individuals using a Big Five Personality Inventory found that tattooed individuals scored higher on the subscale of extraversion, and lower on the subscale of neuroticism (Wohlrab, 2007).

More recently, a 2012 study of 540 individuals from Austria and Germany examined Big Five personality traits in participants, as well as a need for uniqueness, sensation seeking, self-esteem, religious and spiritual belief, and demographic variables. The researchers in this study concluded that not only do those with tattoos have higher levels of need for uniqueness, sensation seeking, and thrill and adventure seeking, but they have lower levels of self-esteem, attend religious services less, and are generally much less educated than individuals who did not have tattoos (Swami et al.

, 2012). For decades, businesses have attempted to identify personality traits that predict a successful employee. When United States federal law banned the use of polygraphs for employee selection in 1988, hirers began using personality surveys as the primary method for making hiring decisions (Stabile, 2013).

Job interviewers now ask questions designed to reveal components of an individual’s personality in order to evaluate where that individual would best fit within the company structure, how committed to the job the individual would be, and their likelihood of advancing through the company ranks (Wohlrab, 2007).

However, studies as late as 2010 have shown that despite this shift to personality-based hiring, companies still discard potential employees on the basis of their tattoos (Burgess, & Clark 2010). Researchers have also attempted to determine personality traits capable of predicting successful employees.

A 2014 ten-year longitudinal study of over 8,000 individuals working within multiple big business companies revealed that there is a significant statistical difference between the managerial and working classes in three Big Five personality dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness (Palaiou & Furnham, 2014).

Conscientiousness was shown to be the best predictor of overall successful job performance and individuals who scored higher in this dimension tended to be more achievement oriented (Li, Barrick, Zimmerman, & Chiabaru, 2014).

Neuroticism successfully predicted poor work performance; the lower the levels of neuroticism, the higher the level of performance from the employee (Barrick, Mount, & Judge, 2001). Finally, higher levels of extraversion were linked to higher levels of task performance and proactivity (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006).

  1. This study attempts to augment the area of research pertaining to tattooed individuals’ personality traits by investigating whether tattooed individuals differ significantly when compared to their non-tattooed peers in areas related to successful employee traits;

It was hypothesized that tattooed individuals would score higher in conscientiousness and extraversion and lower in neuroticism as measured by the Big Five Inventory. MATERIALS AND METHODS Participants Participants were recruited through a campus-wide e-mail at Whitworth University, Facebook psychology groups, and global online psychology research forums.

Participation was entirely voluntary, and participants could complete the study on their own time at their own pace. 521 individuals completed the survey, 411 females and 110 males, aged from 18 to 62 years old.

Materials Participants completed an online version of the 44-Question Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) followed by basic demographic questions addressing age, sex, education level, and university affiliation of the participant. Participants were also asked if they had any tattoos.

Participants with tattoos were asked to indicate the size and location of those tattoos. The survey measured the Big Five areas of personality: openness to experience, neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness.

For example, questions measuring conscientiousness asked the participant to rate statements such as: “I am someone who does a thorough job” or “I am a reliable worker” on a five-point Likert scale. Items measuring neuroticism stated, “I am someone who remains calm in tense situations” and “I am someone who is emotionally stable, not easily upset”.

Finally, items related to extraversion included statements such as “I am someone who is talkative” and “I am someone who is full of energy” (John et al. , 1991). Participants were asked to rate their agreement with a series of such statements on a five-point Likert on a scale of one (“strongly disagreeing”) to five (“strongly agreeing”).

The Big Five Inventory has scored between 0. 73 – 0. 82 on Cronbach’s alpha test over the course of its development, giving it a high degree of internal consistency and thus, reliability (Schmitt et al. , 2007). The survey contained nine questions regarding conscientiousness, eight questions regarding neuroticism, and eight questions regarding extraversion.

  • The three personality subscales of conscientiousness, extraversion, and neuroticism were scored using a formula that calculated a numerical value for each personality dimension by adding each individual’s selected scores on the Likert scale, which were then averaged between all participants for an overall mean;

RESULTS A total of N  =521 individuals completed the survey. Of that 521, 411 were female and 110 were male. Participant age varied from 18 to 68 years old. Participants were current students or alumni from 54 universities of various sizes in both rural and urban locations throughout the United States.

Two hundred sixty-six (51%) identified themselves as having no tattoos and two hundred fifty-five (49%) identified themselves as having tattoos. A two-tailed independent sample t -test revealed no statistically significant difference in levels of conscientiousness between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals ( p  =.

30; Figure 1). Like conscientiousness, a two-tailed independent sample t-test revealed no statistically significance difference on the neuroticism personality scale between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals ( p  =. 53; Figure 1). Results revealed a statistically significant result regarding extraversion.

  • A two-tailed independent sample t-test revealed a statistically significance difference between tattooed individuals ( M  = 3;
  • 41,  SD  = 0;
  • 77) and non-tattooed individuals ( M  = 3;
  • 21,  SD  = 0;
  • 83,  p  =;

004; Figure 1). DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were positive traits associated with individuals who have tattoos. It was proposed that tattooed individuals would score higher on the conscientiousness and extraversion domains and lower on the neuroticism domain as measured by the Big Five Inventory than their non-tattooed peers.

Tattooed individuals scored significantly higher in extraversion than their non-tattooed peers, but there were no significant differences in conscientiousness or neuroticism between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals.

Though tattooed individuals did not differ significantly in two of the three areas tested in this study, the significant difference in extraversion suggests that those individuals with one or more tattoos may display higher levels of task performance and proactivity in the business world (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006).

  1. A growing body of literature suggests tattooed individuals display different personality traits than their non-tattooed counterparts, and this study lends further support to this hypothesis;
  2. Specifically, the present study supports the findings from several other studies that tattooed individuals consistently score higher in extraversion than their non-tattooed peers (e;

, Stirn, Hinz, & Brahler, 2006; Swami, 2012; Swami et al. , 2012 Wohlrab, Stahl, Rammsayer, & Kappeler, 2007). This study may be limited by the high proportion of female participants ( n  = 411) compared to and male participants n  = 110). A study in which males and females are equally represented could be better extrapolated to the general public.

However, a similar study, performed in 2012 with 45. 6% male participants found very similar results to the present study; tattooed individuals scored significantly higher than non-tattooed individuals in extraversion, but did not score differently in any of the other Big Five personality dimensions (Swami et al.

, 2012). Future research should be conducted with a more age-diverse sample, as the present study had a mean age of 24. 47 years old. Though this study lends itself well to explaining the personality attributes of the younger generation, it does not shed any light onto the baby boomer generation, who are currently the individuals holding CEO, managerial, and most importantly, hiring positions over the younger population (Odgers Berndtson, 2012).

  • Over the next decade, a mass exodus of baby boomers is expected to occur, leaving open positions for the younger generation (Odgers Berndtson, 2012);
  • However, if baby boomers are still utilizing stigmatized hiring criteria regarding tattoos, they are excluding a class of individuals who are more proactive and task performance oriented than their age-matched peers (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006);
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Gathering more research regarding generational differences in personality attributes and attitudes towards tattoos may have the potential to change current hiring criteria. Additionally, examining the final two personality domains (agreeableness and openness to experience) in the Big Five Inventory may lead to further information regarding the relationship between tattoos and personality, which could divulge more information regarding desirable characteristics in employees.

  • Agreeableness has been correlated with success in several specific job fields, such as those that require considerable interpersonal interaction;
  • Similarly, the openness to experience dimension has predicted success in fields where teamwork and training performance are important (Barrick et al;

, 2001). Finally, associations between tattoos and personality could be further explored by examining whether the effect is binary (tattoo vs. non-tattoo) or a gradient (influenced by the quantity of tattoos). Tattooing has rapidly become a prevalent phenomenon in western culture.

  1. It may therefore be time to reexamine the stigma attached to hiring tattooed individuals;
  2. Extraversion, which indicates higher levels of task performance and proactivity in a job setting (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006), is starting, through recent research, to become associated with tattooed individuals;

The business industry stands to gain quality employees who may be well suited to long-term success and significant contributions to the company if hiring criteria regarding tattoos were to be reassessed (Sackett, Burris, & Ryan, 1989). REFERENCES

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  11. Roberts, T. , & Ryan, S. (2002). Tattooing and high risk behavior in adolescents. Pediatrics, 110 , 1058-1063.
  12. Sackett PR, Burris LR, Ryan AM. (1989). Coaching and practice effects in personnel selection. In Coo per CL, Robertson IT (Eds. ), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 145–183). New York: Wiley.
  13. Schmitt, D. , Allik, J. , McCrae, R. , Benet-Martínez, V. , Alcalay, L. , & Ault, L. (2007). The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits: Patterns and profiles of human self-description across 56 nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38 , 173–212.
  14. Stabile, S. (2013). The use of personality tests as a hiring tool: Is the benefit worth the cost?. University of Pennsylvania Journal of Business Law, 4 , 279-288.
  15. Stirn, A. , Hinz, A. , & Brahler, E. (2006). Prevalence of tattooing and body piercing in Germany and perception of health, mental disorders, and sensation seeking among tattooed and body-pierced individuals. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60 , 531-534
  16. Swami, V. (2012). Written on the body? Individual differences between British adults who do and do not obtain a first tattoo. Scandinavian Journal Of Psychology, 53 , 407-412.
  17. Swami, V. , Pietschnig, J. , Bertl, B. , Nader, I. , Stieger, S. , & Voracek, M. (2012). Personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals. Psychological Reports, 111 , 97-106.
  18. Tate, J. , & Shelton, B. (2008) Personality correlates of tattooing and body piercing in a college sample: the kids are alright. Personality and Individual Differences, 45 , 281-285.
  19. Wohlrab, S. (2007). Differences in personality characteristics between body-modified and non-modified individuals: Associations with individual personality traits and their possible evolutionary implications. European Journal Of Personality, 21 , 931-951.
  20. Wohlrab, S. , Fink, B. , & Kappeler, P. (2005). Human body ornaments from an evolutionary perspective – Diversity and function of tattoos, piercings, and scarification. Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft Wein, 134/135 , 1-10.
  21. Wohlrab, S. , Stahl, J. , Rammsayer, T. , & Kappeler, P. (2007) Differences in personality characteristics between body modified and nonmodified individuals and possible evolutionary implications. European Journal of Personality, 21 , 931-951.

Are tattoos trashy?

Are Tattoos Trashy? – Why To Not Get A Tattoo Someone looking to get a tattoo may put their appointment on hold in fear of looking trashy, but are tattoos really trashy? The opinion that tattoo are trashy is becoming a thing of the past. In fact, 42% of people do not think tattoos affect a person’s appearance at all and that number is growing. 24% of people even find them to make someone more attractive, while only 22% still have a negative opinion of them. However, as with every style trend out there it is not an absolute.

Why do humans get tattoos?

Body art, body bling, self-graffiti, walking billboards, fashionable ink accessories. Each of these expressions depict the physical nature of the tattoo. What’s often NOT discussed, however, is the emotional side of tattoos. I vividly remember the first time I saw a “tramp stamp.

  • ” A woman was reaching for something in the front row of a large auditorium and a few rows of men and women witnessed her walking artistry;
  • Everyone had a reaction;
  • And once she left the room, we all talked about it;

It was like group therapy. The responses ranged from “She’s definitely a party girl, probably drinks a lot, has a lot of sex and a rough childhood,” to “She’s probably really creative, edgy, a leader and an independent thinker. ” Some liked her more, some liked her less and many guys were more interested in her because of the tattoo.

  1. Whatever the response, we were all intrigued, and each of us conjured up our own personal version of her story — all from the sight of a well-placed tattoo;
  2. In those days, tattoos were still controversial;

Now, they’re more accepted than ever. You could even call them “trendy. ” In the nightlife scene, tattoo artists are rapidly becoming a popular career choice. Sooner or later, we’re going to see a leather-clad, tattoo-sleeved, multi-pierced guy named Rocko at our kid’s career fair standing next to the “Be a DJ” booth.

  1. Although tattoos have been around for more than 5,000 years (Egyptians used tattoos to differentiate peasants from slaves and social branding has been around a long time), ink art has really exploded in the last 25 years;

[1] Is it social branding? Tattoos are a conversation starter. Either there’s a story attached or a “skin”-showing session or an emotional response derived from the sight of ink art. And the emotional response from the sight of tattoos leads to a modern-day version of social branding.

“He must be tough. ” “She’s probably easy. ” “He’ll never get a corporate job. ” “She just wants to drink vodka tonics and dance on a speaker. ” Of course there are variables. In my opinion, the older you are, the less chance you’ll be forgiving of tattoos.

Neck and face tattoos are usually not as well-received as other locations no matter what your age (sorry, Big Mike). Where you put the tattoo, how may tattoos you have, what the tattoos is and the size of the tattoos all help shape the emotional response of the viewer.

And that observer could be anyone from a potential boss, a family member or a date. You’re incredibly naïve or in total denial if you think your tattoos aren’t going to have a significant positive or negative influence on people who don’t know you well.

Why Get Tattoos? People get tattoos for many reasons: for attention, self-expression, artistic freedom, rebellion, a visual display of a personal narrative, reminders of spiritual/cultural traditions, sexual motivation, addiction, identification with a group or even drunken impulsiveness (which is why many tattoo parlors are open late).

  • And now, according to some research studies , 15-38 percent of Americans have some type of long-term body art;
  • What was once considered self-mutilatory behavior and a psychiatric problem has now become almost normative behavior;

What Does Your Tattoo Mean? Some people mark themselves for life to remind them of past family members or ancient sayings or religious scriptures or names of their current family/love interest. Other people use tattoos to enhance their sexual prowess or feed their exhibitionist side, and many people use tattoos to visually promote their identity and/or group affiliation. Research on tattoos reveals some interesting findings:

  • Adults with tattoos have been shown to be more sexually active than controls without tattoos.
  • People with tattoos have been shown to be more likely to engage in more higher risk behaviors.
  • Women who get tattoos are more than twice as likely to get them removed as men.
  • In studying first impressions of people that have tattoos, researchers have found that avatars (neutral) with tattoos and other body modifications were rated as more likely to be thrill and adventure seekers, to have a higher number of previous sexual partners, and to be less inhibited than non-tattooed avatars. This study looked at general stigma associated with people sporting tattoos.
  • And another study showed both men and women had higher body appreciation, higher self esteem and lower anxiety right after getting new tattoos. Surprisingly, three weeks later men continued to have less anxiety but women had a sharp increase in anxiety that may be associated with concerns about body image.
  • And I’ve personally seen tattoo markings used as an endorphin release and substitute for addictive behavior. An individual addicted to pills was able to stop popping pills but then subsequently became addicted to getting body ink. So what does this mean? Our current society craves individuality and self expression. And now many people wear their artistic expression.

    “I stand for. ” Johnny Depp said, “My body is my journal and my tattoos are my story. ” Tattoos can visually reveal more about you or distract people from getting to know the real you. Some people hide behind their tattoos.

    We are having more trouble communicating with each other than ever before, as electronic communication will never replace face-to-face human contact. So, it’s not surprising that there’s a growing trend toward communication via body ink. We don’t have to talk, we just have to look.

    Our bodies have become the refrigerator magnets of quotes, sayings and reminders. Whether you like it or not, tattoos are growing in popularity. The long-term fear of being “marked for life” is being tempered by tattoo removal technology and people getting used to seeing tattoos.

    Personally, I chose not to have a tattoo (henna tattoos don’t count) because the beauty of life is that it’s unexpected and we change with our experiences. What we stand for and believe in at 18 is very different than 35 or 60. If we stood for one thing in life and it never changed, then we could all have “life script” tattoos (and face boredom on a regular basis).

    1. But we do grow and change;
    2. I appreciate the artistry of tattoos but also enjoy the mystery of learning about someone without being “visually influenced” to have a response;
    3. We all judge, and first impressions probably carry more weight than they should;

    Whatever your feelings are about tattoos, one thing is for sure: There’s definitely more than meets the eye. Reference: 1. Caplan J. (Ed). 2000. Written on the Body: The Tattoo in European & American History; Princeton N. , Princeton University Press For more by Reef Karim, D.

    Why is everyone getting a tattoo?

    Because They Just Like the Look of a Certain Tattoo – Many people are drawn to tattoos simply because of their beauty or because they look cool. Even if they attach no broader significance to the tattoo, they might be compelled to get one because they are enamored with a particular design or image and want it permanently inked on their skin.

    Are tattoos toxic to the body?

    ‘Tattoo inks and permanent make up (PMU) may contain hazardous substances — for example, substances that cause cancer, genetic mutations, toxic effects on reproduction, allergies or other adverse effects on health,’ an ECHA statement reads.

    Do tattoos make you healthier?

    It reduces cortisol levels in the body – Cortisol is a stress hormone and its increase results in increased stress levels. When a person goes through the tattooing process, it reduces cortisol levels. As a consequence, the stress levels are decreased in the person.

    Can a tattoo change your personality?

    Author:  Sophia Carter – Institution:  Whitworth University ABSTRACT Research supports personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals. However, few studies have investigated whether any of these differences are associated with positive indicators for tattooed individuals.

    In this study, personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals in three of the Big Five personality areas considered critical to successful employees in the workforce were examined.

    Previous research has established that higher levels of conscientiousness and extraversion coupled with lower levels of neuroticism are indicators of high-quality employees. The present study attempts to augment this line of research by adding the dimension of tattoos; investigating whether individuals with tattoos report more positive personality indicators in these dimensions than individuals without tattoos.

    1. Thus it was hypothesized that tattooed individuals would report higher levels of conscientiousness and extraversion and lower levels of neuroticism than non-tattooed individuals;
    2. For this purpose,  N  = 521 individuals completed an online survey, which included the 44-Question Big Five Inventory;

    An independent sample t -test revealed a statistically significant difference between tattooed ( M  = 3. 41,  SD  = 0. 77) and non-tattooed ( M  = 3. 21,  SD  = 0. 83) groups in the Big Five personality area of extraversion,  t  (521) = 0. 39,  p  =. 004,  d  = 0.

    25. There were no other statistically significant differences. These findings indicate that tattooed individuals may be better employees than previously believed, as the extraversion component of the Big Five Inventory, has been found to be a critical indicator of successful job performance.

    INTRODUCTION Tattoos have increased in popularity over the last two decades; almost one in five people across all age groups had a tattoo as of 2012, and one in ten people have two or more tattoos (Swami et al. , 2012). Nearly 40% of young adults (18-25) have at least one tattoo, whereas only 15-16% of members of this age group in 1990 were tattooed (Swami et al.

    , 2012). Despite the increase in tattoos within younger generations, tattooed individuals face discrimination, negative stigma, and lower levels of employment than their non-tattooed counterparts (Horne, Knox, Zusman, & Zusman, 2007).

    Very little research has examined whether individuals with tattoos score differently than non-tattooed individuals on scales measuring personality traits perceived as positive. This study seeks to address this gap by identifying personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals and the potential implications of those differences for employment.

    1. Historically, the traits associated with tattooed individuals have depended significantly on the culture and circumstances of those individuals;
    2. Captain Cook explored Polynesia in 1769 and observed the social and spiritual significance of tattoos in Polynesian culture;
    You might be interested:  What Soap To Use For Tattoo?

    The location of a tattoo on an individual’s body and the specific tattoo design displayed social, hierarchal, and genealogical information about the owner of the tattoo, as well as signaling particular aspects of his or her character (Parry, 1933). Tattooing was considered a sacred ceremony, and most tattoos were thought to fetch spiritual power, protection, and strength.

    Almost every Polynesian individual had tattoos, and many of Captain Cook’s men left their voyage with a permanent memento of their expedition, which was considered a great honor (Parry, 1933). Similarly, Native Americans report a long and extensive history of traditional tattoos.

    Depending on the tribe, tattoos could signal hierarchy or a specific role within the tribe, mark a warrior’s prowess in battle, or be considered marks of beauty (Littell, 2003). Since then, through the shift towards Western culture and through changing definitions of art, tattoos have become more associated with criminals and the sexually promiscuous (Wohlrab, Fink, & Kappeler, 2005).

    Recent studies have shown there are still many stereotypes attached to individuals with tattoos: academic struggle, broken homes, traumatic childhoods, rarely or never attending church, poor decision-making skills, and susceptibility to peer pressure (Roberts & Ryan, 2002).

    However, these stereotypes may not accurately represent the current tattoo climate. Forty percent of 26 to 40-year-olds now have a tattoo, closely followed by 36% of 18 to 25-year-olds (Swami et al. , 2012). The rising popularity of tattoos among young to middle aged individuals suggests that tattoos may hold different significance sociologically, biologically, and socially than they have throughout the previous century (Wohlrab et al.

    , 2005). Research is mixed on whether the negative stereotypes associated with tattoos are accurate. A study completed in 2007 in Germany evaluating tattooed and non-tattooed individuals using a Big Five Personality Inventory found that tattooed individuals scored higher on the subscale of extraversion, and lower on the subscale of neuroticism (Wohlrab, 2007).

    More recently, a 2012 study of 540 individuals from Austria and Germany examined Big Five personality traits in participants, as well as a need for uniqueness, sensation seeking, self-esteem, religious and spiritual belief, and demographic variables. The researchers in this study concluded that not only do those with tattoos have higher levels of need for uniqueness, sensation seeking, and thrill and adventure seeking, but they have lower levels of self-esteem, attend religious services less, and are generally much less educated than individuals who did not have tattoos (Swami et al.

    1. , 2012);
    2. For decades, businesses have attempted to identify personality traits that predict a successful employee;
    3. When United States federal law banned the use of polygraphs for employee selection in 1988, hirers began using personality surveys as the primary method for making hiring decisions (Stabile, 2013);

    Job interviewers now ask questions designed to reveal components of an individual’s personality in order to evaluate where that individual would best fit within the company structure, how committed to the job the individual would be, and their likelihood of advancing through the company ranks (Wohlrab, 2007).

    However, studies as late as 2010 have shown that despite this shift to personality-based hiring, companies still discard potential employees on the basis of their tattoos (Burgess, & Clark 2010). Researchers have also attempted to determine personality traits capable of predicting successful employees.

    A 2014 ten-year longitudinal study of over 8,000 individuals working within multiple big business companies revealed that there is a significant statistical difference between the managerial and working classes in three Big Five personality dimensions: neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness (Palaiou & Furnham, 2014).

    1. Conscientiousness was shown to be the best predictor of overall successful job performance and individuals who scored higher in this dimension tended to be more achievement oriented (Li, Barrick, Zimmerman, & Chiabaru, 2014);

    Neuroticism successfully predicted poor work performance; the lower the levels of neuroticism, the higher the level of performance from the employee (Barrick, Mount, & Judge, 2001). Finally, higher levels of extraversion were linked to higher levels of task performance and proactivity (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006).

    This study attempts to augment the area of research pertaining to tattooed individuals’ personality traits by investigating whether tattooed individuals differ significantly when compared to their non-tattooed peers in areas related to successful employee traits.

    It was hypothesized that tattooed individuals would score higher in conscientiousness and extraversion and lower in neuroticism as measured by the Big Five Inventory. MATERIALS AND METHODS Participants Participants were recruited through a campus-wide e-mail at Whitworth University, Facebook psychology groups, and global online psychology research forums.

    • Participation was entirely voluntary, and participants could complete the study on their own time at their own pace;
    • 521 individuals completed the survey, 411 females and 110 males, aged from 18 to 62 years old;

    Materials Participants completed an online version of the 44-Question Big Five Inventory (John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) followed by basic demographic questions addressing age, sex, education level, and university affiliation of the participant. Participants were also asked if they had any tattoos.

    1. Participants with tattoos were asked to indicate the size and location of those tattoos;
    2. The survey measured the Big Five areas of personality: openness to experience, neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness;

    For example, questions measuring conscientiousness asked the participant to rate statements such as: “I am someone who does a thorough job” or “I am a reliable worker” on a five-point Likert scale. Items measuring neuroticism stated, “I am someone who remains calm in tense situations” and “I am someone who is emotionally stable, not easily upset”.

    Finally, items related to extraversion included statements such as “I am someone who is talkative” and “I am someone who is full of energy” (John et al. , 1991). Participants were asked to rate their agreement with a series of such statements on a five-point Likert on a scale of one (“strongly disagreeing”) to five (“strongly agreeing”).

    The Big Five Inventory has scored between 0. 73 – 0. 82 on Cronbach’s alpha test over the course of its development, giving it a high degree of internal consistency and thus, reliability (Schmitt et al. , 2007). The survey contained nine questions regarding conscientiousness, eight questions regarding neuroticism, and eight questions regarding extraversion.

    The three personality subscales of conscientiousness, extraversion, and neuroticism were scored using a formula that calculated a numerical value for each personality dimension by adding each individual’s selected scores on the Likert scale, which were then averaged between all participants for an overall mean.

    RESULTS A total of N  =521 individuals completed the survey. Of that 521, 411 were female and 110 were male. Participant age varied from 18 to 68 years old. Participants were current students or alumni from 54 universities of various sizes in both rural and urban locations throughout the United States.

    • Two hundred sixty-six (51%) identified themselves as having no tattoos and two hundred fifty-five (49%) identified themselves as having tattoos;
    • A two-tailed independent sample t -test revealed no statistically significant difference in levels of conscientiousness between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals ( p  =;

    30; Figure 1). Like conscientiousness, a two-tailed independent sample t-test revealed no statistically significance difference on the neuroticism personality scale between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals ( p  =. 53; Figure 1). Results revealed a statistically significant result regarding extraversion.

    • A two-tailed independent sample t-test revealed a statistically significance difference between tattooed individuals ( M  = 3;
    • 41,  SD  = 0;
    • 77) and non-tattooed individuals ( M  = 3;
    • 21,  SD  = 0;
    • 83,  p  =;

    004; Figure 1). DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were positive traits associated with individuals who have tattoos. It was proposed that tattooed individuals would score higher on the conscientiousness and extraversion domains and lower on the neuroticism domain as measured by the Big Five Inventory than their non-tattooed peers.

    • Tattooed individuals scored significantly higher in extraversion than their non-tattooed peers, but there were no significant differences in conscientiousness or neuroticism between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals;

    Though tattooed individuals did not differ significantly in two of the three areas tested in this study, the significant difference in extraversion suggests that those individuals with one or more tattoos may display higher levels of task performance and proactivity in the business world (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006).

    A growing body of literature suggests tattooed individuals display different personality traits than their non-tattooed counterparts, and this study lends further support to this hypothesis. Specifically, the present study supports the findings from several other studies that tattooed individuals consistently score higher in extraversion than their non-tattooed peers (e.

    , Stirn, Hinz, & Brahler, 2006; Swami, 2012; Swami et al. , 2012 Wohlrab, Stahl, Rammsayer, & Kappeler, 2007). This study may be limited by the high proportion of female participants ( n  = 411) compared to and male participants n  = 110). A study in which males and females are equally represented could be better extrapolated to the general public.

    However, a similar study, performed in 2012 with 45. 6% male participants found very similar results to the present study; tattooed individuals scored significantly higher than non-tattooed individuals in extraversion, but did not score differently in any of the other Big Five personality dimensions (Swami et al.

    , 2012). Future research should be conducted with a more age-diverse sample, as the present study had a mean age of 24. 47 years old. Though this study lends itself well to explaining the personality attributes of the younger generation, it does not shed any light onto the baby boomer generation, who are currently the individuals holding CEO, managerial, and most importantly, hiring positions over the younger population (Odgers Berndtson, 2012).

    Over the next decade, a mass exodus of baby boomers is expected to occur, leaving open positions for the younger generation (Odgers Berndtson, 2012). However, if baby boomers are still utilizing stigmatized hiring criteria regarding tattoos, they are excluding a class of individuals who are more proactive and task performance oriented than their age-matched peers (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006).

    Gathering more research regarding generational differences in personality attributes and attitudes towards tattoos may have the potential to change current hiring criteria. Additionally, examining the final two personality domains (agreeableness and openness to experience) in the Big Five Inventory may lead to further information regarding the relationship between tattoos and personality, which could divulge more information regarding desirable characteristics in employees.

    Agreeableness has been correlated with success in several specific job fields, such as those that require considerable interpersonal interaction. Similarly, the openness to experience dimension has predicted success in fields where teamwork and training performance are important (Barrick et al.

    , 2001). Finally, associations between tattoos and personality could be further explored by examining whether the effect is binary (tattoo vs. non-tattoo) or a gradient (influenced by the quantity of tattoos). Tattooing has rapidly become a prevalent phenomenon in western culture.

    It may therefore be time to reexamine the stigma attached to hiring tattooed individuals. Extraversion, which indicates higher levels of task performance and proactivity in a job setting (Pearsall & Ellis, 2006), is starting, through recent research, to become associated with tattooed individuals.

    The business industry stands to gain quality employees who may be well suited to long-term success and significant contributions to the company if hiring criteria regarding tattoos were to be reassessed (Sackett, Burris, & Ryan, 1989). REFERENCES

    1. Barrick, M. , Mount, M. , & Judge, T. (2001). Personality and performance at the beginning of the new millennium. What do we know and where do we go next? International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9 , 9-30.
    2. Burgess, M. , & Clark, L. (2010). Do the “savage origins” of tattoos cast a prejudicial shadow on contemporary tattooed individuals? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40 , 746-764.
    3. Horne, J. , Knox, D. , Zusman, J. , and Zusman, M. (2007) Tattoos and piercings: Attitudes, behaviours, and interpretations of college students. College Student Journal, 41 , 1011-1020.
    4. John, O. , Donahue, E. , & Kentle, R. (1991). The Big Five Inventory–Versions 4a and 54. Berkeley, CA: University of California, Berkeley, Institute of Personality and Social Research.
    5. Li, N. , Barrick, M. , Zimmerman, R. , & Chiabaru, D. (2014). Retaining the productive employee: The role of personality. The Academy of Management Annals, 8 , 347-395.
    6. Littell, A. (2003). The illustrated self: Construction of meaning through tattoo images and their narratives (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from Proquest database. (Order No. AAI3077541).
    7. Odgers Berndtson. (2012). After the Baby Boomers: A Next Generation of Leadership [Brochure]. London: England, Cass Business School.
    8. Palaiou, K. & Furnham, A. (2014). Are bosses unique? Personality facet differences between CEOs and staff in five work sectors. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 66 , 173-196.
    9. Parry, A. (1933). Tattoo; Secrets of a strange art as practiced among the natives of the United States. Madison, WI: Simon and Schuster.
    10. Pearsall, M. , & Ellis, A. (2006). The effects of critical team member assertiveness on team performance and satisfaction. Journal of Management, 32 , 575-594.
    11. Roberts, T. , & Ryan, S. (2002). Tattooing and high risk behavior in adolescents. Pediatrics, 110 , 1058-1063.
    12. Sackett PR, Burris LR, Ryan AM. (1989). Coaching and practice effects in personnel selection. In Coo per CL, Robertson IT (Eds. ), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 145–183). New York: Wiley.
    13. Schmitt, D. , Allik, J. , McCrae, R. , Benet-Martínez, V. , Alcalay, L. , & Ault, L. (2007). The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits: Patterns and profiles of human self-description across 56 nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38 , 173–212.
    14. Stabile, S. (2013). The use of personality tests as a hiring tool: Is the benefit worth the cost?. University of Pennsylvania Journal of Business Law, 4 , 279-288.
    15. Stirn, A. , Hinz, A. , & Brahler, E. (2006). Prevalence of tattooing and body piercing in Germany and perception of health, mental disorders, and sensation seeking among tattooed and body-pierced individuals. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60 , 531-534
    16. Swami, V. (2012). Written on the body? Individual differences between British adults who do and do not obtain a first tattoo. Scandinavian Journal Of Psychology, 53 , 407-412.
    17. Swami, V. , Pietschnig, J. , Bertl, B. , Nader, I. , Stieger, S. , & Voracek, M. (2012). Personality differences between tattooed and non-tattooed individuals. Psychological Reports, 111 , 97-106.
    18. Tate, J. , & Shelton, B. (2008) Personality correlates of tattooing and body piercing in a college sample: the kids are alright. Personality and Individual Differences, 45 , 281-285.
    19. Wohlrab, S. (2007). Differences in personality characteristics between body-modified and non-modified individuals: Associations with individual personality traits and their possible evolutionary implications. European Journal Of Personality, 21 , 931-951.
    20. Wohlrab, S. , Fink, B. , & Kappeler, P. (2005). Human body ornaments from an evolutionary perspective – Diversity and function of tattoos, piercings, and scarification. Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft Wein, 134/135 , 1-10.
    21. Wohlrab, S. , Stahl, J. , Rammsayer, T. , & Kappeler, P. (2007) Differences in personality characteristics between body modified and nonmodified individuals and possible evolutionary implications. European Journal of Personality, 21 , 931-951.

    How long do permanent tattoos last?

    If you take good care of the tattoo, and you’ve applied it properly, it will last you two weeks for sure. Permanent Tattoos – these tattoos will last you a lifetime. That is unless you decide to go for laser tattoo removal, in which case they’ll last you how long you want them to last.